Technical challenges in the application of renewable energy: A review

Author(s): Timo Lehtola, Ahmad Zahedi
James Cook University, 1 James Cook Dr, Douglas QLD 4814, Australia
International Journal of Smart Grid and Clean Energy, vol. 9, no. 3, May 2020: pp. 689-699
ISSN: 2315-4462 (Print)
ISSN: 2373-3594 (Online)
Digital Object Identifier: 10.12720/sgce.9.3.689-699

Abstract: The aim of this review is to investigate the technical challenges involved in renewable energy distribution. One of the problems is that solar energy and wind power only generate energy when it is windy or the sun is shining. This work presents a possible solution to this problem. Solar energy and wind power are increasing power generation forms globally. Yet, some technical challenges exist in integrating solar energy and wind power in the electricity network. For example, wind speed changes the rotating speed of windmill plates causing changes to the voltage, frequency, and power.
However, an integrated renewable energy supply and energy storage system connects solar and wind to a battery system, ensuring electricity production without adding non-renewable sources. Applications can be near consumption places like houses, remote towns, factories, and research stations. In this study, renewable energy and energy storage system integrates vehicle to grid operations to reduce fluctuating power.
As a result, grid connections to large-scale and small-scale solutions are presented. Presented grid connections stabilize fluctuating power system. Increasing penetration of renewable energy needs balancing power. The combination of renewable power, batteries, and electric vehicles are a solution for balancing fluctuating power frequency and voltage.

Keywords: Electric vehicle; energy storage; power flow study; remote region; vehicle to grid operations
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